Gang membership , gender , and sexual behavior in and outside a romantic relationship
Gang membership , gender , and sexual behavior in and outside a romantic relationship
In previous studies, it has been clearly found that gan g-up youth is involved in more dangerous acts compared to the youth of agricultural cooperatives. behaviors He didn’t pay much attention to comparing violence and drug sales in sexual behavior This is a study that demonstrates this group membership Reminiscent of dangerous sex, many gangs members The report that gender will be motivated to join a gang is limited to the ability to consider gangs and vary in enrollment. gender There are various forms such as. of sexual I am working on. In this study, we used the addition of health data and the trend score matching to resolve these restrictions and examine the following points. the relationship between gang membership and sexual behavior inside and out of a romantic relationship At the same time, how this is relationship differs by gender This survey results suggests this gang. membership The lows go up of sexual The number of sexual intercourse, no n-romantic sex, no n-romantic sexual partners are not uniquely gender I confirmed the difference.
As a result of the survey, this gang membership Increases the spread and outbreak of disadvantaged sexual relationships. behaviors Many of this study the relationship between gang membership And interpersonal violence (Melde and ESBENSEN 2013; pyrooz et al. membership on other risky behaviors Drag trading, contact with the police, sensation, etc. (Decker and Van Winkle 1996; Esbensen and Carson 2012; Tapia 2011; Wiley, Carson and Esbensen 2017). However, Decker et al. (2013) pointed out that the following research is needed. the relationship between gang membership and non-criminal behaviors , especially those behaviors This can “draw” young people into gangs. Considering certain mechanics common to gang members, sexual activity may enter this category. For example, some young people report that they have participated in gangs for reasons for socialization of friends, such as “going to a party” and “go out”, and reflects the important roles of gangs in promoting social connections. I am. relationships (Decker and Curry 2000; Esbensen and Winfree 2013; SANCHEZ-JANKOWSKI 1991). During this gathering and non-structured socialization period, often represents the lives of young people belonging to gangs (Klein 1995), LAUGER 2012), it is also an opportunity to interact with gangs and agricultural cooperatives. of sexual It is an interest. In fact, some male young people indicate that “approaching or impressing” is the main reason for “approaching or impressing” (Curry 2000; Decker and Van Winkle 1996; Padilla 1992; Palmer and Tilley 1995). In general I found the relevance of. membership and sexual behavior If you think about it, it’s only natural. sexual Dating usually begins in adolescence or when young people are more likely to join gangs (Sanders, Lankenau and Jackson-Bloom 2009).
Sexual behavior is part of normal adolescent development, but research suggests that such behavior can be problematic if it occurs with an unromantic partner. Unromantic sex has been identified as dangerous behavior (Fortenberry 2003; Manning, Longmore, and Giordano 2005), and increased chances of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies (Ford, Sohn, and Lepkowski 2001). Manning, Longmore, and Giordano 2000; Norris et al. 96). Increased participation in hazards behaviors It can further ensnare gangs, such as non-romantic sex. members (e. g., Moffitt 1993), exacerbating the long-term consequences of gang involvement. Also non-romantic sexual Activity requires less commitment than sex a romantic Being a partner, engage regularly sexual behavior may limit the development of the social skills necessary to form and maintain romantic relationships This is a favorable outcome, especially for gangster youth (Furman and Simon 1999). relationships sharing with significant others can help young people stay away from gang involvement (Carson 2018; Decker and Pyrooz 2011; Moore 1991).
Gangster youths may be more likely than non-gangster youths to have sex with both youths. romantic and a non-romantic partner. However, existing research suggests that there can be considerable variability in this regard. relationship based on gender This research often reveals that gangsters have such a double standard. members masculinity behavior Especially when these encounters involve non-romantic partners (Campbell 1984a; Miller 2001; Quinn et al. Certain procedures, such as introductory “sexual intercourse”, increase the likelihood of non-romantic sexual partners). Maybe, but the work of Miller (2001) suggests that more control is in place. the sexual behavior functioning as sexual code” that challenges the “respect” of women rather than men when engaging in sexual relationships with non-romantic partners (Miller 2002; Quinn et al. 2019; Schalet, Hunt, and Joe-Laidler 2003). to understand the relationship high school girls membership and sexual behavior is important given the dangerous nature of non-romantic things. sexual Also, early onset of pregnancy is a potential consequence of gang involvement for women (Thornberry et al. 2003).
Previous research has been valuable in establishing links with gangsters membership and sexual Activity, but this work has some limitations in important respects. First, previous studies consisted of samples from one city, or only males or only females. For this reason, the generalization of previous research has been limited, with findings from the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showing: sexual behaviors Varies by region, race, and ethnicity as gender (Ethier, Kann and McManus 2018). Second, prior studies are limited in their ability to consider self-selection within cohorts, as they rely on cross-sectional data. Previous studies have shown that gang membership involves a self-selection process, particularly against insults and victimization (Fox 2013; Melde and Esbensen 2013; Melde, Taylor, and Esbensen 2009; Pyrooz et al. 2007; Thornberry et al. 1993). These selection processes are likely to spread as follows. to sexual behavior The same is true, especially the men members They often cite “to get girls” as their motivation for joining gangs. Finally, previous studies have the following limitations. sexual behavior occurred with a romantic Or a nonverbal partner. In this study, we improved on existing research related to gangs. membership and sexual behavior By empirically verifying this relationship Between national male and female samples using two-wave data. Using these data will greatly enhance our understanding of this issue. relationship can be empirically compared with the sexual male and female gang activity members To identify potential differences in this behavior with romantic and a non-romantic partner.
Gender differences in sexual behavior among gang members
Self-reported surveys consistently find that women make up 25-55% of gang members. members (Esbensen and Carson 2012; Estrada et al., 2016; Klein and Maxson 2006; Pyrooz 2014b; Thornberry et al., 2003). Men continue to be more deeply integrated into gang life (Decker et al., 2014), but research also suggests female gangs. members are not only on the fringes of gang life (see Esbensen et al., 1999; Peterson et al., 2001; Panfil and Peterson 2015), outs However, selling drugs, committing crimes, and getting into fights, they play an active role in the gang. However, gang experiences for women are still largely gendered and misogynistic (Joe and Chesney-Lind 1995; Peterson and Panfil 2014). Gender-sensitive treatment of women gangs members is particularly noticeable. the sexual A dual pattern described by qualitative researchers (Miller 2001; Moore 1991; Moore and Hagedorn 1996; Quinn et al, 2019). Considered normal, even encouraged, for male gangs. members to have multiple sexual partners (Dickson-Gomez et al., 2017, Quinn et al., 2019). for male gangs members , sexual Masculinity is associated with heightened feelings of masculinity and members Denial can lead to ridicule a sexual provide opportunities (Dickson-Gomez et al. 2017; Messerschmidt 1995; Portillos 1999). The sexual behavior female, rather romantic and non-romantic partners are often gang-controlled (Miller 2001).
Female gang members They are often subject to greater stigma for being involved in non-romantic things. sexual I am working onSuch stigma can come at the hands of both male and female gangs. members (Cepeda and Valdez 2003; Messerschmidt 1995; Miller 2001; Quinn et al. 2019). For example, some research suggests that out of concern. sexual image, female gang members Socially distance yourself from female classmates who you find highly inappropriate. a behavior Danger of being considered a whore members (Cepeda and Valdez 2003; Hunt and Joe-Laidler 2001; Kolb and Palys 2016). Women who have been “sexualized” in gangs are particularly at risk of such labeling. According to literature sexual Initiation is associated with women who are unable to take other means of gang entry, such as “jumping” (Miller 2001; Quinn et al. 2019), or who jump with a contemptuous attitude toward their opponents (e. g., hood rats), and are central to gangs. Reserved for women perceived as less sexual or loyal (Cepeda and Valdez 2003; Miller 2001; Portillos 1999). Furthermore, after the woman has passed once a sexual is expected to continue. sexual relations with male members (Cepeda and Valdez 2003; Peterson and Panfil 2014; Quinn et al. 2019). This is seen as a way to show gang loyalty and increase group cohesion (Dickson-Gomez et al. 2017; Hunt and Joe-Laidler 2001). In addition, there are research results that women are at risk of becoming gangsters if they deny men’s career advancement. members (Dickson-Gomez et al. 2017; Miller 2001), they did not. sexual forced to start. For example, respondents in Quinn et al.’s study (2019:157) were asked how they felt when: her sexual “(I was) fed up, but I was like, whatever, I’m doing it.”Survey reveals female gangs members pay particular attention to the surrounding gaze. sexual Reputation in gangs and how that reputation is shaped by methods of participation and initiation into non-romantic sex.
It is also suggested that there is a double standard. romantic build partnerships. men gang members may engage in sexual activity with romantic (Cepeda and Valdez 2003; Messerschmidt 1995). and outside gang (Miller 2001). For example, in Miller’s (2001) study, the act of dating outside masculine members , but female members who sought relationships Being with a hostile gang man was rude, and there was a risk of increasing tension between the two gangs. There is also a survey that a gang woman is in a romantic relationship with a no n-gun friend. Group membership Gangs are traditionally considered to be male, so women may be more stiggets. behavior “Make a woman involved in gang” not attractive to the boy. ” outside Because it is a gang, “dating options” are limited (Miller 2002: 191). Female gang members You may need to respond to men. members Has a strong desire to own it (MOORE 1991), so it is difficult to maintain it. a romantic relationship When building such a partnership, even if a no n-gun friend and a woman have a romantic relationship with her own group, she tolerate that other men are in love with multiple men, and they are even liked. You have to deal with the environment of the group. sexual Partner’s affair of such a gang’s fellow will expose the gang woman to sexually transmitted diseases (Cepeda and Valdez 2003). In addition, if a gang’s friend’s affair involves a fellow woman, the woman will also have sexually transmitted diseases. members In combination with such mechanics, women’s gangs do not take such violent actions, but taking such violent behavior means that female gangs are such violent behavior. It is thought that it does not take such violent actions, although it does not take. members In such a case, unlike men, they are expected to have such an environment, which is expected to have a “continuous on e-person single woman system” (Miller 2001, 2002). and outside The crew that tends to be disturbed is for its formation and sustainability of romantic relationships .
Sexual experiences in gangs are important for women who are already in danger. Not only has the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and no n-planned pregnancy (for example, Thornberry et al. sexual and romantic relationships For example, it may be difficult for a woman who has been dating a gang to build intimacy and trust. in romantic relationships The study of Wesche and Dickson-Gomez (2019) suggests that the unjust treatment of women in gangs is associated with violence and forced sex.
Review of empirical literature
Several empirical or mixed methods deal with the illness or correlation. of sexual behaviors Gap members Research including samples consisting of only current or past gangsters members In many cases, public health approaches are adopted, in which case the degree of risk factors and potential sexual It is evaluated for youth, who is said to be involved in activities. behaviors (Most of this study is for male or female gangs. members Alternatively, it does not include a descriptive or multiple analysis that examines the potential differences. by gender If there are gangs for both men and women members Is included in the sample. This includes KING and other research (2013), which shows that each of the young people is a gang member in the eight detention centers in Georgia, showing that each young man is a gang member. See Sanders and others, 2009 and 2013). These studies have consistently found that the ratio of the gang members of the youth is sexually active and at least sometimes in danger. sexual behaviors For example, King et al. (2013) discovered that nearly 35 % of the sample gang young man had once reported to have sexual contact with two or more people.
There are also research for current and former gangs only members I evaluate the disease rate of. sexual behaviors by gender This includes a study of Wesche and Dickson-Gomez (2019) surveyed a sample of 281 community-based men and women gangs. members A 14 to 1 9-yea r-old woman living in a city in the Midwest. Nearly 60 % of men who recently had sex, 70 % of women reported that they had a vagina intercourse without condoms last month, and 5 % of the total reported.”As a whole, Wesche and Dickson-Gomez (2019, P. 651) discovered a gentle difference between men and women’s gangs. members various sexual behaviors (Collective signs before 30 days ago), however, female gangs members Was strongly reported that he had been damaged by “forced sexual intercourse” and “group rape” in his life.
Other studies compare the disease rate and predictive factors. of sexual behaviors Between gangs and no n-gun young people. Some of these studies are sampled only for men or women, as in the research of Voisin et al (2004). the relationship between gang membership and sexual Activities in male inmates aged 14 to 18 years old. As a result, it was found that the career of the gang was the following strong relevance: sexual behaviors This increases the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (eg, when you are highly performed with drugs or alcohol). There are other researches including. gender Similar results have been obtained in samples for gangs and agricultural cooperatives. a relationship between gang membership and sexual Activities for African youths such as HARPER and ROBINSON (1999), Wingood et al. (2002), Voisin and others (2014).
Other studies are targeted for men and women samples that include both gangsters and no n-gun young people. One of these studies is research by Voisin et al. (2008). They investigated about 600 men and women in detention centers around Georgia. There is no direct relationship relationship Between gangs membership And become an index of “HIV risk” behaviors “This includes items that have recently had sex without condoms and recently consuming drugs and alcohol. However, this survey is. no gender When a specific analysis is required, as i n-voisin and Neilands (2010) research. Investigating more than 500 African high school students living in a large city in the Midwest show that the direct effects of gang life were significant. membership Use risk as an index sexual behaviors Is for men, but not for women.
The above studies were generally cros s-defined for gangs. membership and sexual behaviors At one point, was measured with selective or no n-representative samples. According to such studies, as evidence that young people who do ant i-social and dangerous acts tend to be gang, explanation of the possibility that more sexually active young people and young people who are likely to be at risk will become gangs. I can’t. sexual behaviors (Bendixen, Endresen, and OLWEUS 2006; Higginson et al. 2018). Therefore, the differences between gang, boy gang, or female gangs, and female gangs in a synchronous study may reflect the difference before gangs. Initial research provides opportunities to better separate the potential for gangs, taking into account the gangs before gangs. membership on sexual behaviors There are only a few vertical research that evaluated. the relationship Minnis et al. (2008) completed a tw o-year tracking survey, mainly a Latin (female) young man living near San Francisco, between gang involvement and sexual achievements. I discovered that it was significant. relationship There is nothing to do between the gangsters of the male partner and the pregnancy between the women’s own gangsters and pregnancy. Some larg e-scale vertical research on youth (eg, Denver and Pittberg Youth Studies) also include the following measurements. of sexual However, only Rochester Youth Development Study (Ryds) was able to directly associate the gang. membership And dependency scale of sexual behavior Lanctot and Smith (2001) revealed that being a gang member would significantly predict early retirement. sexual behavior Is a Ryds woman, Thornberry et al. (2003) has this gang membership Was associated with adolescent chil d-rearing in male and male RYDS.
Current research content
In this study, the following research quests are set.
Does gang membership facilitate sexual behavior with romantic And a no n-romantic partner?
Does the relationship between gang membership and sexual behavior vary based on gender ?
By answering these questions, this study is added to the existing literature related to the gang. membership and sexual We carry out activities in various ways. First, most of the existing studies are cros s-defined, and are generally targeted for no n-representative samples of young people who are risky, such as youth and city youth in cities. All of these studies suggest that gangsters are sexually active than no n-gun young people, but how much, this is relationship However, it is still unknown whether it is due to the selection (= the difference before adaptation) or the promotion (= A During or In Gang) or the unique aspect of the sample. We are dealing with these limits by extracting from young samples throughout the United States and controlling the selection effect by tren d-score matching using tw o-wave data. Second, existing research has not officially verified its presence. the sexual behaviors Professional profit or outside a romantic relationship This seems to be related to the focus of the previous research. on sexual behaviors It’s dangerous, irrespective of whether it was done a romantic Or no n-verbal partner. We investigated the influence of gangsters to deal with this limit. membership on romantic and nonromantic sexual I am working on. Understanding this distinction is important because no n-productive sex is associated with more harmful results (for example, sexually transmitted diseases and no n-planned pregnancy. See Fortenberry 2003). Finally, the preceding empirical research usually focuses on the following points: one gender Or do not make a formal examination gender variation in the relationship between gang membership and sexual I am working on. However, according to a qualitative survey the relationship between gang membership and sexual activity varies by gender due to a sexual Gang’s double standard men are free to participate in sexual activity, whether romantic or otherwise, while the sexual behavior Women are more controlled.
We perform data < SPAN> in various ways. First, most of the existing studies are cros s-defined, and are generally targeted for no n-representative samples of young people who are risky, such as youth and city youth in cities. All of these studies suggest that gangsters are sexually active than no n-gun young people, but how much, this is
However, it is still unknown whether it is due to the selection (= the difference before adaptation) or the promotion (= A During or In Gang) or the unique aspect of the sample. We are dealing with these limits by extracting from young samples throughout the United States and controlling the selection effect by tren d-score matching using tw o-wave data. Second, existing research has not officially verified its presence.
Professional profit membership ) and dependent ( sexual behavior This seems to be related to the focus of the previous research. membership It’s dangerous, irrespective of whether it was done membership Or no n-verbal partner. We investigated the influence of gangsters to deal with this limit. members I am working on. Understanding this distinction is important because no n-productive sex is associated with more harmful results (for example, sexually transmitted diseases and no n-planned pregnancy. See Fortenberry 2003). Finally, the pr e-empirical research usually focuses on the following points:
Or do not make a formal examination
I am working on. However, according to a qualitative survey
Gang’s double standard men are free to participate of sexual behavior in and outside a romantic relationship Women are more controlled. had sexual We perform data activities in various ways. First, most of the existing studies are cros s-defined, and are generally targeted for no n-representative samples of young people who are risky, such as youth and city youth in cities. All of these studies suggest that gangsters are sexually active than no n-gun young people, but how much, this is sexual However, it is still unknown whether it is due to the selection (= the difference before adaptation) or the promotion (= A During or In Gang) or the unique aspect of the sample. We are dealing with these limits by extracting from young samples throughout the United States and controlling the selection effects by tren d-score matching using tw o-wave data. Second, existing research has not officially verified its presence. sexual Professional profit no sexual This seems to be related to the focus of the previous research.
It’s dangerous, irrespective of whether it was done sexual Or no n-verbal partner. We investigated the influence of gangsters to deal with this limit. a romantic or a non- romantic I am working on. Understanding this distinction is important because no n-productive sex is associated with more harmful results (for example, sexually transmitted diseases and no n-planned pregnancy. See Fortenberry 2003). Finally, the preceding empirical research usually focuses on the following points: a romantic relationship Or do not make a formal examination romantic I am working on. However, according to a qualitative survey sexual Gang’s double standard men are free to participate sexual Women are more controlled. sexual data one romantic These questions are resolved using tw o-wave data in the national vertical study (Health Addendum) of the health from puberty to adults. According to Add Health research, we first identified 80 high schools from Quality Education Database (QED; n = 26. 666 U. S. High School). This was thought to be “the most comprehensive high school list” (Tourangeau and Hee-Choon 1999: 2). These 80 schools have more than 30 students in the 11th grade, from QED sampling frames to regional, urban, type (public, private, regional), scale, and racial composition. Based on the characteristics, we selected a sample that represents US high schools. Many high schools, which have these high schools as “nutrients,” were also selected, and 132 high schools and junior high schools were selected as samples. The students who attend these schools were classified by gender and gender, selected about 200 students for each pair of high school and preparatory school, and participated in the visit interview. In the first (WAVE I) held in 1995, about 21., 000 students, including the “core” sample and the special supplementary training, answered home interviews. A teenager from the 7th to 11th graders who participated in Wave I was interviewed in 1996, about a year later (see Harris 2013). The young man (n = 14. 736) who participated in the first and second home interview is the original sample. of romantic This first youth sample was used for imptaining default data, but some cases were excluded from the final analysis sample after imposition (n = 3. 654). This uses tw o-wave data from a young man whose WAVE II data is lacking alone (gang < SPAN> questions from adolescent to adults). Is solved. In the study of ADD HEALTH, we first identified 80 high schools from Quality Education Database (QED (QED) (QED) (QED) (QED) U. S.(Tourangeau and Hee-Choon 1999: 2) was considered. These 80 schools have more than 30 students in the 11th grade, and from QED sampling frames, regions, urban areas, types (public, private, private., Local), the scale, and racial composition, and based on these characteristics, we chose a sample that representing US high schools. There were many high schools that “nutrients” were selected, and 132 schools were included in a total of 132 schools. The high school and junior high school were selected as a sample. And the students who attend these schools were classified as gender and gender, selected about 200 students for each pair of high school and preparatory school, and participated in the visit interview. In 1995, about 21., 000 students, including the “core” sample and the “special supplementary training” sample, answered home interviews. The teenager was interviewed again in 1996, about a year later (see Wave II; Harris 2013). Young people (n = 14. 736) who participated in the first and second home interview are the original samples.。 sexual This first youth sample was used for imptaining default data, but some cases were excluded from the final analysis sample after imposition (n = 3. 654). This is solved using tw o-wave data from a young man whose WAVE II data was missing alone (these questions (gangs were questions) of the health from puberty to adults (Health Addendum). In the study of ADD HEALTH, I first identified 80 high schools from Quality Education Database (QED; n = 26. 666 U. S. HIGH School). This is the “most useful high school list”. Hee-choon 1999: 2) was considered. These 80 schools have more than 30 students in the 11th grade, and from QED sampling frames, regions, urban, type (public, private, regional). We have selected a sample that represents US high schools based on these characteristics, based on these characteristics. Many high schools that “nutrients” have been selected, and a total of 132 high schools. Junior high school was selected as a sample. And the students who attend these schools were classified by gender and gender, and about 200 students were selected for each pair of high school and preparatory school, and participated in the visit interview in 1995. In the 1st (Wave I), about 21., 000 students of the “core” sample and the “special supplementary training” sample answered home interviews. The 7th to 11th graders who participated in Wave I. Is an original sample (n = 14. 736) who participated in the first and second home interview in 1996, about a year later (see Harris 2013). sexual This first youth sample was used for imptaining default data, but some cases were excluded from the final analysis sample after imposition (n = 3. 654). This is a young man whose WAVE II data was missing alone. romantic Also, new immigrants were excluded if they did not have a WAVE II sampling weight associated with the Health Standards Data. In some analysis, this sampling weight is applied. About five years after the second home interview, the last youth group was excluded from the sample based on the information in the third home interview that the participants had become a young adult with an average age of 22 years. In Wave III, I asked the question, “Have you ever belonged to a named gang?”, But in the section (section 26) I asked, “The next question may have been in the past 12 months. It’s about what you can’t do. “In this ratio, the proportion of “Yes” was answered about “Join Brand Gang” in WAVE II (see below), which was a teenager in the age of a teenager and was a more general age of joining the gang. Three times (see Pyrooz and Sweeten 2015). Therefore, most participants seem to have responded to Wave III gang questions, assuming the recall period of “always” instead of “the past 12 months”. Like Delisi et al. (2009) and Watkins and Melde (2016), young people who answered “yes” were excluded from the sample. membership The question is “No”, and the Wave III question is “No”. sexual intercourse with two romantic partners.
I will ask a question in Wave II. Such young people may have been gangs in the past or in the past. a sexual relationship with anyone” beside a romantic Wave II was considered a no n-gun youth, but if he stayed on the sample, he was a no n-gun youth. When these cases were removed, the final analysis sample was narrowed down to 11. 082 youth. Approximately 17 % of these young people (n = 1. 850) had at least one of Wave I’s control variables, but there were no control variables with more than 5 %. The missing data was input using the ICE command of Stata (Royston 2007) and the multifaceted chain equation. We created 10 datasets and used these input data for analysis. a relationship variable a sexual relationship Dipendent (Wave II) a relationship We consider five dependent variables that handle the disease rate and incidence. relationship After the first home interview, these variables were created from the questions heard in the second home interview and are similar to the scales used in advance research (eg MANNING ET AL. 2005). Specifically, the young man is “so far a sexual relationship If sexual intercourse occurred, the month and year of the first and most recent intercourse.
held a meeting. Sexual intercourse was defined as “a man inserting his penis into a woman’s vagina”. Sexual intercourse is coded if the adolescent answers yes to the sexual intercourse question and reports the date (month/year) of first or last intercourse.
Gang membership The meeting was after the initial home interview. Youth report members A code of 0 was given if encountered or indicated to have been encountered before the first home visit. membership During the second home interview, I asked the following questions: membership Inter-wave activity involved
is a partner ofAdolescents were asked to identify up to three individuals who ‘had’.
“This girlfriend in a year and a half”. about each to sexual behavior Partners, youth “”is there”? and sexual Sexual intercourse “with that partner and, if so, whether or not you have inserted your penis into the vagina.”In addition, we asked for the first and most recent date (month/year) of these. sexual behavior will hold a meeting. Romantic sex is coded if young people report:
Partner since first home interview date, otherwise coded as zero. Love target is 0 to 2 of her, indicating the number. membership on our measures of sexual behavior report to young general Up to 3 people can cross the wave, but adolescents in the analyzed sample reported that she was less than 60 (less than 0. 5%). membership moderates the relationship Mr. Ninkon
Of these, only eight said she was a gangster. membership was added to Wave II. Due to such low numbers, we combined these youth with the largest group of youth reported below. gender We also asked adolescents if they “had”. of membership From the initial home interview, partner sexual activity is coded if the young person reports such. gender ( r >and zero otherwise. Young people who answered affirmatively were then asked how many male partners they had. or gender Between waves. Non-suggestive sexual partners count those who reported such adolescence. the gender At the first home visit most of her young people made no such report.
The gender (82%) or she responded with 1–4 partners (15%) in a small proportion (< 0. 5%) of the analyzed sample. gender 10 or more non-romantic partners and he counted this few cases as 10, so the values for the “non-romantic sex partners” variable range from 0 to 10. outside Independent (Wave II)
In the second home interview, I heard this when a teenage young man was asking “Is it an introduction to a named gang?”She answered this question, “No,” she might have been a gang in the past or in the past. membership Those who joined more than a year ago, those who have not joined. As mentioned earlier, I tried to identify such young people and eliminate them from samples using the third home visit questions. A young man of about 5 % (n = 527) of the analysis is answered as “gang”.
I will ask a question in Wave II. This ratio matches the penetration rate of recent gangs.
Was found in other studies, including larg e-scale samples of school or loca l-based youth (eg, GotTFredson and GottFredson 2001; Pyrooz and Sweeten 2015). membership Control (Wave i) membership A considerable number of factors that spans multiple areas (individuals, friends, family, schools, nearby, etc.) are related to the rise in gangslords (Howell and Griffiths 2018), and some of these factors. behaviors See Kotchick et al. 2001 for puberty. WAVE I estimates more than 25 control variables in pr e-existing research in associations with adolescent gangs. sexual intercourse with a romantic Engagement variables include wave I measurement of subordinate variables.
Appendix A is a list and description of these control variables of these Wave I. membership .
Gangsters are chosen no n-randomly, so it is highly likely that hig h-risk youth is likely to enter gangs, and it is necessary to separate the effects of gangsia. In order to deal with this selection bias and estimate the effects of gangs in various scales of actions and attitudes, more and more researchers use trend score analysis are increasing (for example, Melde and ESBENSEN 2011; Pyrooz 2014a). Researchers (for example, Delisi et al. 2009; Watkins and Melde 2016) using data in Add Health Research are conducting this study using the tendency score analysis.
Our analysis is modeled from the work of Green and Stuart (2014) and Wiley et Al. Offer Green and Stuart (2014). membership and gender Shows guidance on the test of the moderation effect using the trend score, and Wiley et al. (2017) apply this guidance to gang. members Between the arrest and the deviation scale members (34.4%) to report sexual behavior First, the trend score of each new work included in the analysis sample is calculated by logistic regression and GANG WAVE II romantic As a result, Wave I’s control variables were predictors. As Dugoff et al. (2014) suggested, including the dummy sampling variables of WAVE II and “layers” (that is, the four regions in the United States), which supported his original ADD Health survey design. After estimating the entire sample for this logistic regression model, it is estimated in a man and a woman, and as a result, “articulation”. of sexual -Be w-specific tendency (= probability by gender It turns out that these two scores have a high correlation. of romantic 0, 90), and this good symmetry is a gang and no n-gangs. of romantic -Certain score We have decided to announce the results of matching analysis membership -The concrete score based on the knowledge of green and stuart (2014). no membership -An, it was used for matching gangs and young people. romantic (On e-t o-one, 1, 10, on e-t o-one (kernel), we matched men and women. We tested different matching methods to evaluate the sensitivity of our knowledge.(See APEL AND SWEETEN 2010; GUO AND FRASER 2015.) In each approach, a common support restriction is imposed on cases with trendy scores, and as a result, Wave I’s control variable was the predictor. Dugoff. As proposed by La (2014), it includes the dummy samplin g-it variables of WAVE II and “layers” (or four areas in the United States) compatible with the original Add Health survey design. This logistic regression model is a sample. After estimating the whole, divided into men and women, and as a result, “articulation”
-Be w-specific tendency (= probability by gender and gang membership .
It turns out that these two scores have a high correlation. and sexual 0, 90), and this good symmetry is a gang and no n-gangs. membership The lows go up of sexual behavior -The concrete score based on the knowledge of green and stuart (2014). romantic or non- romantic -An, it was used for matching gangs and young people. membership (On e-t o-one, 1, 10, on e-t o-one (kernel), we matched men and women. We tested different matching methods to evaluate the sensitivity of our knowledge.(See APEL AND SWEETEN 2010; GUO AND FRASER 2015). Each approach imposed a common support restriction on cases with trend scores, and Wave I’s control variable was predictive factors. Dugoff et al. (2014As proposed, it includes the dummy sampling weight variables of WAVE II and “layers” (that is, four regions in the United States) compatible with the original Add Health survey design. This logistic regression model estimates the entire sample. After that, it is estimated in a man and a woman, and as a result, “articulation” relationship -Be w-specific tendency (= probability
It turns out that these two scores have a high correlation.
0, 90), and this good symmetry is a gang and no n-gangs. membership -Certain score We have decided to announce the results of matching analysis membership and gender -The concrete score based on the knowledge of green and stuart (2014). membership and gender -An, it was used for matching gangs and young people. of romantic sexual (On e-t o-one, 1, 10, on e-t o-one (kernel), we matched men and women. We tested different matching methods to evaluate the sensitivity of our knowledge.(See APEL AND SWEETEN 2010; GUO AND Fraser 2015) Each approach imposes a common support restriction on cases with trendy scores R. sexual The overlap between gangsters and non-gangsters was cut off. Also, for 1:1 and 1:10 matching, substitution is possible (i. e., non-gang youth can be matched with multiple024 in men and 0. 015 in women. These values are equal to one-fourth the standard deviation of propensity scores for men (SD = . 098) and women (SD = . 062) and are recommended thresholds (Rosenbaum and Rubin 1985). Core matching (one-to-many) has the advantage of retaining probably all cases in the control group, but this method does not allow untreated individuals to be “distance in trend scores from treated individuals within a range or bandwidth of trend scores”. are weighted by” (Garrido et al. 2014:1710), but may introduce bias by retaining controls that are poorer matches. Using the core biweight function, we considered bandwidth values of 0, 06 (default) and 0, 02. The choice of kernel function is believed to be less important than the choice of bandwidth (Caliendo and Kopeinig 2008). Results of kernel matching with minimum bandwidth (0, 02) are shown. This kernel matching resulted in a better covariance balance between gangster and non-gangster boys and reduced the sample size by her three control cases. Each matching method was performed using the psmatch2 module of Stata 14. 1 (Leuven and Sianesi 2003). sexual Then, using the svyset command in Stata 14. 1, the weights generated by each matching procedure were used to estimate a set of regression models representing the complex survey design of the Add Health study (see Chen and Harris 2020). With this command, regardless of the matching procedure, treated cases and juvenile gangster cases were assigned a weight of 1, and matched controls and juvenile non-Mongolian cases were assigned different weights depending on the procedure. However, the cumulative weight of selected young martyrs was always equal to the total number of treated adolescents retained in 1 vs 1, 1 vs 10, core matching (n = 527 young cohorts). These respective weights were then applied to generate an estimate of the average treatment effect (ATT) for the treated subjects in the regression model. ATT represents the “average effect of the individuals actually treated” and is
(Dugoff et al., 2014: 286). A second set of weights was also used in a regression model that multiplied the corresponding weights by the Wave II sampling weights to provide an estimate of the ATT population (PATT) that could be generalized to the broader target healthy population. On the other hand, the ATT estimates applying only the corresponding weights are sample-specific (Satt, Dugoff et al, the influence of the analysis results by matching method (1 vs. 1, 1 vs. 10, core) and weights (SATT, PATT). Therefore, for the sake of brevity, we present findings from a matching method that balanced covariates (cores) using SATT weights, which are more commonly used than PATT weights in previous studies. x gender Statistical descriptors of variables and equilibria
Table 1 shows variable descriptive statistics and equilibrium statistics for cluster-matched and discordant samples. membership Of the unmatched analysis sample (n=11, 082), 537 individuals (4, 8%) self-reported as gangsters. sexual In Wave II, about one-third of gangsters were women (n=183). Summary statistics for unmatched samples show that gangsters tend to participate in more adverse events. sexual (In Wave I, such as drug use and delinquency over noncancer adolescents). Young people in gangs also tended to report more. membership (34%) and non-romantic partners (34%), 19% and 15%, respectively. The “% ABS STD DIF” column displays a statistic that indicates how “unbalanced” the variable is between the control and treatment groups. It reflects the percentage of the mean absolute difference between cohorts divided by the mean standard deviation of both groups. For dichotomous variables, we used a slightly different formula (see Austin and Mamdani 2006). Normalized percentages correspond to ‘Cohen’s or effect size’ (Green and Stuart 2014: 777), with scores above 10% indicating a ‘substantial imbalance’ (Austin and Mamdani 2006: 2086). More than 80% of the variables (32 of 39) exceeded this 10% threshold in the unmatched samples, with a mean standardized difference of approximately 33%. no membership Descriptive and Equilibrium Statistics for Unmatched and Core Matched Gangs sexual Table 1 shows similar statistics for the matching procedure that yielded the best equilibrium variables, ie core matching. The SATT weights generated in this way were applied to generate the corresponding sample statistics. Ten gangster youths and three non-gun youths were excluded due to propensity scores for common support and/or bandwidth limitation. From Table 1, it can be seen that only standardized differences for age exceed 10% when SATT matching weights are applied. In fact, the standardized mean difference decreased from 33% in uncontrolled samples to less than 2% in matched samples. membership Descriptive statistics for the dependent variable sexual Table 2 shows the ratios and mean values of the five dependent variables measured by Wave II. These stats are shown by the gang.
For univariate samples and samples corresponding to kernels with SATT weights applied. Looking at the distribution of the univariate samples, the gang membership (57, 9%) is higher than Nongang. membership and gender in Wave II, including membership and gender found that there was a gang number difference in prevalence and mean numbers between and non-romantic partners. membership Partner was more pronounced in men. After weighting, the gang difference of all samples and In general decreased significantly for each outcome. In fact, there was no difference in prevalence between treatment conditions membership gender, or mean number of these partners in all samples. Interestingly, according to each sample, men reported a slightly lower likelihood. sexual behavior In sexual intercourse in gang therapy settings of sexual compared to the opposite condition of
Gang members (Gang 39, 1%, non-gun 38, 3%). However, for women. behaviors Sexual intercourse with a partner remained moderately dominant under treatment conditions. sexual behaviors Descriptive statistics (mean value the sexual behaviors of gang members In non-romance sex, the difference between guns and nonguns is most pronounced in sexual behavior by gender There are various forms such as. of sexual The power rises membership This facilitative effect also applies to women, regardless of whether adolescents participate. of sexual Partner if male, gang
The effects of such membership on sexual behavior varies based on gender appears most prominently in Table 2. the relationship between gang membership and sexual behavior Regression result membership on sexual FIG. 1 is an estimated value by a regression model that has returned to a gang of each variable that depends on WAVE II. members (Estimated value of A) and gangs are individually different in romantic (Estimated value of B). In each model, the gang is the main effect of the ages as the control variable from the standard deviation in Table 1. the sexual Was modeled when estimating the interaction of these two variables. FIG. 1 is a regression value by a model that applies the SATT weight of the core sample. The appendix B shows the kernel matching that applies the weight of SATT and PATT and an additional estimated value by on e-t o-one matching. FIG. 1 shows a total of 10 separate regression models. Logistic regression models were estimated for binary results (that is, sex, erotic sex, no n-erotic sex), and normal regression models were estimated as follows. the sexual From 0 to 3, a negative binary model was estimated for the number of no n-romantic partners. members Partner (from 0 to 10). The estimated value (black circle) shown in FIG. 1 indicates the odds ratio of the two values and order variables and the ratio of no n-romantic variables. members I’m a partner. The vertical line indicates a 95%confidence section of these estimated values. relationship Gang and gang effect regression estimation
About the results of WAVE II of (male). Precautions A 10 separate regression models drawn in the diagram. The black point indicates the likelihood ratio or the displacement ratio of the regression model that has returned. a relationship From these estimates, gangs of sexual Is relevant. romantic Number of sexual intercourse, no n-romantic sexual intercourse, no n-romantic sexual intercourse gender I’m a partner. Each result, the odds and incidence of the gangsters were calculated. sexual respectability and sexual Is about 1. 5, which is on the other side sexual The expected reporting probability is
In the end of the youth who finally reported as a gang, sexual intercourse or non-romantic sexual intercourse increased by 50 % ([odds-1] x 100). the sexual behavior of female gang members The incident occurrence ratio is for these youth for other reasons other than love. the gender A partner that is 1. 5 times under the processing conditions. sexual behavior , especially sexual behavior that occurs outside a romantic relationship Once again, the estimated value of these gangs sexual abuse and its relationship with both gang membership and sexual (A model of A in Fig. 1) is also adjusted in the effects of the age contained as control variables in the interaction model (model of B in Fig. 1). The interaction model also includes the main gang effect of sexual The estimated gang is all members The direction of these estimates is consistent with the results in Table 2, although the interaction term is significant. For example, these estimates suggest that under gang treatment conditions: membership In the case of , the expected odds of romance are lower for men than for women, and the expected odds of lifetime employment are higher for men. sexual However, in Figure 1, gang. sexual can be further promoted. behaviors are more common in men. In fact, for the interaction estimates in Figure 1, the expected return sexual Under treatment conditions, females had slightly more contacts. membership and sexual behavior take part in something more dangerous sexual And so on, from nongan youth membership This study further expanded our knowledge. sexual behaviors as part of gang membership Possibility of a variant that represents selection to gangsters compared to youths of agricultural cooperatives
and various forms. the sexual behaviors of gang members partnership our result is this gang of sexual behaviors (e.g., romantic increase the probability gender Number of sexual intercourse, especially non-romantic sexual acts and non-romantic sexual partners. These findings are consistent with the existing literature, but take this literature forward by more systematically controlling gang selection and relying on a nationally representative sample. Combined with previous research, our findings suggest that young people are more likely to join gangs than other motivations for gang membership, such as protection (Melde, Taylor, and Esbensen 2009) or money making (Augustyn, McGloin, and Pyrooz 2019). It supports the idea that membership seems to increase access to girls and casual sex. members A second research question is, “How successful are gangs?” sexual behaviors Our results suggest this, if not significantly. relationships Youth in male gangs and female gangs may have different effects. Although it seems to have a gang effect members is stronger in women, suggesting that this effect is due to female gangs. romantic increases sexual compared to men, this may be evidence
The double standards seen in qualitative research, particularly among women, are expected to be continuous monogamy (Miller 2001, 2002).
meeting women’s groups
They are sometimes ruled by the fear of being labeled “sluts” and “thugs” by gangs of men and women. This allegation is particularly true when male gangs
They have more casual sexual partners than women.
was not significant. membership .
|These results may be the impact of the motivation to join the gangsters for men and women. It seems that some men participate in gangs to deepen their bonds with women, but according to a survey, contact with women’s gangs seems to be as follows.||According to the research by Schalet and others (2003), the gang women are somewhat inclined to the ratio.|
|From the involvement, people are attracting people.||Even though it’s a partner, considering that it’s not a big deal|
|Because the gang women may be divided into these two groups.||Autonomy suggested from Schalet and others (2003). Regardless of the mechanism, women involved in gangs that maintain stable partners are exposed to risk of sexually transmitted diseases due to high risks.|
|Support the activities (see Cepeda and Valdez 2003).||These findings need to be taken with some precautions. First, we did not consider groups or individual level factors as in the literature.|
|These factors are as follows.||Gang composition. According to the literature, if women belong to gangs with many men, they are likely to experience a strong double standard (Miller 2002; Panfil and Peterson 2015). This double standard is defined by women receiving more restrictive expectations.|
|In particular, in gangs with many men, the literature suggests that women tend to impose such expectations (Miller and Brunson 2000, Sutton 2017). It is also suggested that races and ethnic groups may affect women’s contribution to gangs. For example, Peterson (2012) has limited evidence that can be used, but in a mixed gender gang, African American women may have a higher degree of freedom of action than Latin women. Is shown. Another factor that is not considered in this study is pr e-study.||Some studies have discovered that there is a history of engagement.|
|Abuse is more common in gang women||(Joe and Chesney-Lind 1995) suggests a stronger gang’s risk factor.|
|Belknap and Bowers 2016 among women. In addition, available evidence is before or in childhood.||Abuse is an important prediction factor in the subsequent life.|
|Including more risky activities||Unprotected sex (abajobir et al, 2017). advance|
|Abuse can also transmit the strengths related to the gangsters.||especially among women. Future research should also examine how initiation methods affect later life.|
|Experiences of Gang Members Existing research suggests that women who have had sex in gangs are perceived to be more frustrated than women who jump into gangs or start in other ways. Finally, future studies are encouraged to address these research questions with long-term follow-up. Much of the research to date has been long-term (eg.||) Risky Consequences|
|Specifically, outcomes such as the number of partners, domestic violence, pregnancy and children’s health conditions need to be investigated in the future.||Overall, the findings of this study provide a deeper understanding of|
|look at the text||This possibility can be explored by examining the|
|There is a difference. From this result, the gang||And those trying to get out of gangs can benefit from interventions that target high-risk ones.|
|(e. g. casual sex and condom use, see also Dickson-Gomez et al.||(Voisin et al, 2008; Wesche and Dickson-Gomez 2019). Although this kind of programming would be appropriate for gangs of both sexes|
|The results suggest that programs that enforce rules to treat women as equals are beneficial to women.||or sexual partners (e. g.|
|Subjective? Schalet, Hunt, and Joe-Laidler 2003).||This work was supported in part by her Center for Family and Demographic Research at Bowling Green State University, with core funding from Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Health and Human Development [P2C-HD050959]. This study was designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and was funded by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Health and Human Development [P01-HD31921] and 23 others. We use data from Add Health, a program overseen by Kathleen Mullan Harris, jointly funded by federal agencies and foundations. Special thanks go to Ronald R. Rindfuss and his girlfriend Barbara Entwisle for their help in drafting it. Information on how to download Add Health data files is available on the Add Health website (http://www. cpc. unc. edu/addhealth). No direct support was received from Grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis.|
|Associate Professor, Boring Green State University of State Criminal Council. His research themes include gangs, juvenile delinquency, and program evaluation. Recent books have been published in Journal of Criminal Justice, Journal of Crime and Justice, Review of Children and Youth Services.||DeNA C. Carson University Indiana University Indiana Police School Paul H. Research themes include youth violence, victims, gangs, delinquent groups, etc. Recent books are published in Criminal Justice Behavior, Journal of Crime & Amp; Justice, The Quarterly Justice.|
|Appendix a.||Control variable used when creating a gang tendency score|
|Wave variable 1||Explanation of coding|
|age||Respondents’ age (by year)|
|Match||Whites, blacks, Hispanic, other races and ethnic dummy variables|
|If you are not born in the United States, 1 is 1, and the rest is 0.|
|Both parents are at home||If both of your parents are at home, 1, the rest is 0.|
|Number of households||Number of household residents|
|Living together||Coded 1 if ever had sexual If you live in the same house 5 years ago, 1, if not, 0.|
|Parents’ tolerance||Coded 1 if sexual Cumulative permit scale of 7 items|
|Motherhood||Coded 1 if sexual intercourse with a romantic Average 2nd place maternal attachment scale|
|Motherhood||Number of romantic sexual Mothe r-relate d-related scale consisting of a cumulative 10 items|
|Average points||Coded 1 if the sexual relationship Code in English, history, mathematics, and science, the average GPA|
|School corporate bonds||Average school 3 items/ student bond scale sexual School promise|
|Average value of 3 items, commitment and scale||depression|
|An average 1 9-item scale scale||I thought about suicide|
If you seriously consider suicide within the past 12 months, it is 1, and if not.
Negative future outlook x gender An average negative future prediction diagram scale
Parsimon sexual behavior on gang membership and gang member x gender Average 4 items of impulsive scale